The Heading Indicator
Part of the Experientia Supplementum book series EXS, volume 51 Abstract Many countries have recently established networks for monitoring air pollution, which generally employ physicochemical methods of analysis.
In many places, biological indicator systems are also used to evaluate air quality.
Some highly standardized methods employ lichens or tobacco, which react selectively with particulate air pollutants ARNDT et al. Frequently a combination of different species of green plants and lichens is used to detect the effects of various air pollutants.
Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is the article's first page.
Such bioindicators, being living organisms, react to a sum total of toxic effects in the air and thus may yield valuable information more relevant to the health of man than that provided merely by physicochemical measurement of air pollutants. Bacteria, the smallest organisms with a complete metabolism, have long been used to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial agents or equipment and have recently been shown to be very convenient indicators of DNA-damaging substances, e.
This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Labour market What is it about? Labour market data comprise a key set of indicators for the assessment of the cyclical situation and for macroeconomic and social policy making. Both the unemployment and labour cost indices play an essential role in the compilation of key indicators for the analysis of long-term economic equilibria and the movements around it, e.
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Doctoral Dissertation, Univ. Ill Comm.